5 Best Magnesium Supplements and Forms to Take With Dosages
Been feeling fatigued lately? Suffering from migraines? Been feeling a bit down emotionally?
There’s a good chance that if you looked up natural remedies for any of these conditions, you found the recommendation, "Try taking some magnesium."
Magnesium is recommended for a lot of different health conditions because it plays a role in so many critical processes in our bodies.
Our Best Magnesium Supplements
Here are some of magnesium’s key benefits:
- Keep your bones healthy (1).
- Treat asthma (2).
- Improve your performance while working out (3).
- Keep your immune system strong while working out (4).
- Treat nerve pain (5).
- Get tense muscles to relax (6).
- Take a more relaxing bath (7).
- Decrease stroke risk (8).
- Support endothelial function (9).
- Fight against metabolic syndrome (10)
- Decrease your risk of diabetes (11).
- Combat migraines (12).
- Reduce PMS symptoms (13).
- Decrease blood pressure (14).
- Decrease your heart disease risk (15).
- Improve insulin resistance (16).
- Support neurological function (17).
- Treat Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) (18).
- Reduce anxiety (19).
- Curb depression (20).
- Treat ADHD (21).
- Treat skin allergies (22).
- Provide a neuroprotective effect for infants (23).
- Fight inflammation (24).
- Combat age-related diseases and processes (25).
- Boost muscle performance (26).
- Possibly prevent cancer (27).
- Prevent an array of problems during pregnancy (28).
- Prevent pancreatitis (29).
- Support optimal kidney function (30).
- Reduce the likelihood of hearing loss (31)
- Support ATP and energy function (32).
- Relieve constipation (33).
- Regulate potassium and sodium (34).
- Treat eclampsia (35).
- Improve sleep (36).
You can read about all of these benefits in-depth in my article, "36 Health Benefits of Magnesium."
Basically, if you are short on magnesium in your diet, you could find yourself suffering from one or more health issues which result from low magnesium.
Plus, you are not giving your body the nutrition it needs to keep functioning at its best. That could lead to health issues in the future.
Considering the numerous ways magnesium supports our total health, it is not surprising how often healthcare providers recommend it.
In this article, I am going to share recommendations with you for magnesium supplements to buy.
But first, let’s talk more about how much magnesium you need, and why you may not be getting a sufficient amount.
KEY POINT: Magnesium is a critical nutrient which we require for healthy cardiovascular systems, bones, nerves, and more.
For this reason, it is readily recommended as a remedy for a wide range of health problems.
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Magnesium Deficiency Is Actually Really Common
Actually, magnesium isn’t just recommended because it is really good for you.
It is also recommended because there is a good chance you are not getting enough of it in your diet right now.
According to the National Institute of Health (37), "Dietary surveys of people in the United States consistently show that intakes of magnesium are lower than recommended amounts."
The NIH also states that most Americans in all age groups are getting less magnesium than their EARs (Estimated Average Requirements) from food alone.
So no matter who you are, it is possible that you are getting less magnesium than you need - especially if you have some symptoms which you could link to magnesium deficiency.
But you may be at a heightened risk if you are in one of the following groups:
- Patients with type 2 diabetes
- Patients with gastrointestinal diseases (i.e. Chron’s)
If your magnesium deficiency is severe, you might experience a range of symptoms such as (38):
- Lost appetite
- Coronary spasms
- Heart arrhythmias
- Personality changes
- Low potassium
- Low calcium
What if you only have mild magnesium deficiency? You might have no symptoms, or your symptoms might be harder to detect.
If you check out the article on 36 Health Benefits of Magnesium, you will notice that a lot of the studies have found that those who do not get enough magnesium may experience a range of manifestations.
Sometimes these are subtle; other times they are dramatic. Some examples might include heightened anxiety or depression, chronic constipation, regular migraines, and so forth.
KEY POINT: Magnesium deficiency is very common, even in first world countries where magnesium should be easy to come by.
So if you think that you may not be getting enough of it, maybe you are right.
It Is Hard to Establish Magnesium Deficiency, So Err On the Side of Caution
If you suspect that you are low on magnesium, you might decide to visit your doctor and get a test.
This may or may not be informative. The reason is that the magnesium stored in your body is mainly in your bones or your individual cells.
It is not floating free in your blood to the same extent as a lot of other nutrients which blood tests measure for (37).
As a result, blood tests to measure magnesium levels are often less than accurate. The same goes for saliva and urine tests, which likewise tend to give questionable results.
That means your doctor will probably base his or her recommendations not just on your test results, but also on your symptoms.
So if for example your test results are borderline but you are showcasing multiple symptoms of deficiency, your doctor will probably suggest you simply take magnesium regardless.
You might even be given this recommendation if your test results are normal.
In most cases, it is fine to follow through, because magnesium is well-tolerated as a supplement.
So even if you are not deficient, you probably will not get too much of it. And if you are deficient, you will be balancing out your nutritional intake, which hopefully will solve some of your health problems.
KEY POINT: Magnesium deficiency is a challenge to detect with accuracy through standard testing methods because it is stored in your bones.
Because the deficiency is common and magnesium supplements are well tolerated, it usually makes sense to take extra magnesium if there is a chance it might help you.
Here Is How Much Magnesium You Need Each Day
Once you decide to shop for magnesium supplements, you will need to make sure you are buying a dosage which will fit your needs.
So the first thing you need to know is how much magnesium is recommended each day for optimal health.
The Food and Nutrition Board (FNB) at the Institute of Medicine of the National Academies has established (37) the following recommendations: (The middle column is for males; the right, females.)
- Birth to 6 months 30 mg 30 mg
- 7–12 months 75 mg 75 mg
- 1–3 years 80 mg 80 mg
- 4–8 years 130 mg 130 mg
- 9–13 years 240 mg 240 mg
- 14–18 years 410 mg 360 mg
- 19–30 years 400 mg 310 mg
- 31–50 years 420 mg 320 mg
- 51+ years 420 mg 320 mg
Pregnant? You may need to take a slightly higher dosage of magnesium.
For pregnant women aged 14-18, the dosage recommended rises from 360 mg to 400 mg. For those aged 19-30, the dosage recommended is 350 mg rather than 310 mg. If you are pregnant and aged 31-50, you should get 360 mg rather than 320 mg.
What about women who are breastfeeding? The recommended amounts are unchanged versus the standard recommendations.
There are actually a number of different advantages to taking magnesium when you are pregnant. I suggest reading about them in the article on magnesium benefits.
KEY POINT: You can read the daily recommended amounts of magnesium for different ages and sexes above.
If you are falling short of these recommendations, you probably should be taking a magnesium supplement and/or adjusting your diet to compensate.
Can You Overdose It?
The next question you probably have is, "Is there such a thing as taking too much magnesium?"
The answer to that question is "yes."
But before sharing the upper limits, I want to mention that there is a difference between magnesium you get through the foods you eat and magnesium that comes in a supplement form.
When you take in magnesium through foods or beverages, your kidneys flush out any excess. So if you get too much, it is no big deal. It just passes through your system harmlessly (39).
Your body does not know how to do this though with magnesium which you get through a supplement.
The result is that the extra magnesium can build up, leading to side-effects like cramping, nausea and diarrhea (40).
Certain types of magnesium are more likely to lead to this issue than others. Be especially mindful of it with magnesium chloride, oxide, gluconate and carbonate (41).
So the Upper Intake Levels (ULs) which you see listed below are for magnesium supplements only, not magnesium you are getting through foods: (The middle column is for males; the right, females.)
- Birth to 12 months None established None established
- 1-3 years 65 mg 65 mg
- 4-8 years 110 mg 110 mg
- 9-18 years 350 mg 350 mg
- 19+ years 350 mg 350 mg
As just mentioned, diarrhea is one of the side effects of excessive magnesium from supplements.
It is worth adding that it is actually a pretty common side effect.
So that is something to watch out for when you are selecting a supplement and choosing a dosage.
If you do experience diarrhea from taking magnesium, you can simply cut back on your dosage.
When I was taking magnesium for example, I found that cutting my tablets in half was delivering me an optimal amount of the supplement without the experience of diarrhea.
Thankfully, common magnesium side effects like diarrhea tend to be minor. For the most part, the supplement is very well-tolerated.
Once you find a dosage which is comfortable for your body, you probably will have only minimal issues with diarrhea, if any.
You may also find that one form of magnesium causes you diarrhea, but another does not. Experiment until you find what works.
One more thing which is important to know is that if you take very high dosage of magnesium, you could have more severe side effects.
You could experience magnesium toxicity (42) if you exceed 5,000 mg of magnesium daily.
The symptoms of magnesium toxicity include muscle weakness, urinary retention, problems breathing, flushing, depression, nausea, vomiting and hypotension among others. There is even the possibility of cardiac arrest.
For this reason, it is very important not to take too much magnesium.
But as 5,000 mg is quite a lot, it is unlikely you would ever accidentally exceed a safe dosage.
KEY POINT: While it is possible to get too much magnesium, it is safe and well-tolerated at healthy dosages.
Upper limits have been established only for magnesium you get through supplements, not for what you get through the foods you eat.
Some people do get diarrhea from their magnesium supplements, but switching to a different form or reducing your dosage may very well get rid of this pesky side-effect.
Dietary Options for Magnesium
Because there is no upper limit to magnesium through food and beverages, increasing the magnesium in your diet is a great starting point to filling any nutritional gaps you might have.
Here (37) are some foods and beverages which contain ample amounts of magnesium.
- Dry roasted almonds (1 ounce): 20% DV
- Boiled spinach (1/2 cup): 20% DV
- Dry roasted cashews (1 ounce): 19% DV
- Oil roasted peanuts (1/4 cup): 16% DV
- Soymilk (1 cup): 15% DV
- Cooked black beans (1/2 cup): 15% DV
- Cooked edamame (1/2 cup): 13% DV
- Whole wheat bread (2 slices): 12% DV
- Avocado (1 cup, cubed): 11% DV
- Potato (3.5 ounces, baked with skins intact): 11% DV
- Brown rice (cooked, ½ cup): 11% DV
- Plain low-fat yogurt (8 ounces): 11% DV
- Fortified breakfast cereals: up to 10% DV
- Oatmeal (1 packet, instant): 9% DV
- Canned kidney beans (1/2 cup): 9% DV
These foods are for the most part very nutritious, and ideal for any diet. Even if you are a vegan, there are plenty of ways to introduce more magnesium into your daily meals.
KEY POINT: There are quite a few common foods which are rich in magnesium. They are nutritious all-around, and thus make excellent additions to your diet.
Different Forms of Magnesium Used in Supplements
Even if you do start eating more magnesium, you probably will find it helpful to add a supplement to your daily regimen.
While shopping for magnesium supplements, you will discover that there are a number of different types.
This non-chelated form of magnesium is commonly sold and generally inexpensive.
But because it is not chelated, you may experience absorption issues - and diarrhea. As such, it does not necessarily deliver the value of other forms of magnesium.
This is the form of magnesium which is found in the foods you eat. As such, it is easy for your body to absorb it.
When magnesium is combined in a form with citric acid, it is known as magnesium citrate. As it has a laxative effect, it is typically taken for constipation.
If you do not have constipation which you are trying to treat, you probably should avoid this form, as it is more likely to cause you diarrhea.
Magnesium Chloride Oil
This form of magnesium is an oil rather than a tablet. That means that it can be applied topically, though it may be ingested as well.
When it is ingested, it can help to treat absorption issues which make it hard to get adequate magnesium from dietary sources.
Applied topically, it can be used to treat skin allergies and irritations. It may also be used to speed along wound healing.
If you are specifically trying to avoid diarrhea as a side effect of magnesium supplements, one form which may be suitable for you is magnesium glycinate.
This form is combined with an amino acid called "glycine."
It is the glycine which transports the magnesium through the wall of the intestine, preventing the laxative effect common with other supplements. It also makes it easy for your body to absorb.
Magnesium Threonate (MgT)
This is a form of magnesium supplement which is capable of crossing the mitochondrial membrane. This makes it another form which is easy to absorb.
There are also studies which demonstrate that MgT may be able to improve brain function, including short- and long-term memory as well as working memory.
There may be benefits for learning as well (44).
Another form of magnesium which you will find for sale is magnesium orotate.
This form is combined with orotic acid. This is a form you should look into if you are taking magnesium for cardiovascular health.
Research (45) has shown that it works well as a treatment for severe congestive heart failure. It can improve quality of life, reduce symptoms, and boost survival rates.
This is not a common type of magnesium. It is a combination of magnesium and malic acid.
Research (46) has been conducted into the use of magnesium malate to manage the symptoms of fibromyalgia.
Magnesium combined with taurine has been researched (47) for its protective effects on blood vessels.
This makes it a good choice for cardiovascular health.
It is also suggested that it may be able to improve insulin sensitivity, which could make it a useful treatment for diabetes and pre-diabetes.
This type of magnesium is commonly called "Epsom salts." It comes in a carton, and is very affordable.
It is most common for Epsom salts to be used in the bath to treat muscle and joint pains and induce relaxation.
There is not currently a lot of research into this type of magnesium supplement, but it can be turned into a liquid form, and it is cost-effective.
If studies do confirm its effectiveness, it may start showing up on pharmacy shelves in the years ahead.
Magnesium Aspartate and Magnesium Glutamate
These compounds are both found in aspartame.
There is quite a bit of controversy over whether aspartate and glutamate are safe for human consumption or not.
As there are at least some studies (49) which indicate they may not be, I recommend avoiding these forms for now.
Milk of Magnesia
To treat constipation, heartburn, or upset stomach, you can purchase milk of magnesia. This is usually a suspension of hydrated magnesium carbonate in water.
When it enters your digestive tract however and comes into contact with your stomach acid, a chemical conversion takes place, and it becomes magnesium chloride.
You now know that there are a lot of different forms of magnesium which are used in supplements. There is not necessarily one "best" choice - it all depends on your personal needs.
Think about the condition you are trying to treat, and decide what to buy from there.
KEY POINT: There are a number of different forms of magnesium supplements. You should pick the one which will best treat your symptoms.
Types of Magnesium Supplements
Above, I talked about the different chemical forms of magnesium used to make supplements.
You probably have figured this out by now, but there are also different formats for supplements as well: liquids, tablets, etc.
Let’s go over those now.
This is pretty self-explanatory. Magnesium tablets are usually inexpensive and easy to take.
Because magnesium is fairly soft, you should be able to cut most magnesium pills in half pretty easily if you need to.
If you do not want to swallow a tablet, you can try using a magnesium powder product.
These are typically flavored drink mixes. You just stir some into a glass of water until it dissolves, then drink it.
Magnesium Liquid Supplements
As discussed before, some magnesium supplements come in a liquid form, like milk of magnesia.
Shake the bottle and take the supplement orally. Usually you should do so with a full glass of water or juice.
These are the magnesium sulfate supplements I mentioned before.
You can take Epsom salts orally, or you can use them in the bathtub. A carton should last you a pretty long time, and you can get one for only a couple of dollars.
KEY POINT: Along with deciding on a chemical form of magnesium to take, you will need to think about the format of supplement you want.
Some people may prefer tablets, while others may prefer a liquid or drink mix. Still others may prefer salts.
Factors to Think About When Selecting the Best Magnesium Supplements
Along with the factors above, here are some other considerations for when you are shopping for the best magnesium supplements.
This refers to how much of the supplement your body is able to absorb.
The higher the bioavailability, the more effective the supplement will be - and the better value it will be. As you read in the previous section, some forms of magnesium are more bioavailable than others.
So if this is a prime concern of yours, you should think about one of those forms (i.e. chelated magnesium, Magnesium Glycinate and Magnesium Taurate).
This is a reference to how fast your body is able to absorb and utilize the nutrition contained in a supplement.
I would say this is mostly a concern if you want to use magnesium to treat something where time is of the essence - like insomnia for example.
You need a product which will help you feel calm and sleepy around bedtime.
Of course, this does not mean it necessarily needs to work super fast - it just needs to work along a time schedule that is suitable for your needs.
Magnesium which is water-soluble can be stirred into a beverage. If you need a soluble product, shop for a drink mix or powder.
Easy to Swallow
Some people have a difficult time swallowing pills. If that describes you, you should either buy magnesium as a drink mix, or you should shop for tablets which are specifically designed to be easy to swallow.
Check the reviews to see if other people had an easy or hard time getting the tablets down.
This is something to watch out for when it comes to bioavailability and value.
If you see that a supplement has been "buffered," that means that other cheaper forms of magnesium have been added to the mix, like magnesium oxide.
This reduces overall bioavailability, but may not always be reflected as a lower price.
A lot of magnesium supplements are formulated for general, all-purpose use. Some however are tailored to support cardiovascular health or brain health, or to fight insomnia.
If you need magnesium to treat a specific health condition, shop for a product geared toward that condition to make sure you get the most powerful results.
If you just want to take magnesium to boost your overall health however, you may be able to save money going with something more generic.
It is always wise when shopping for supplements to purchase from a brand that you trust. If one of your favorite manufacturers makes magnesium supplements, that might be a good choice.
If you are trying a new brand, research the company to find out about their manufacturing practices and reputation.
How high or low a dosage you require depends on the condition you are treating, magnesium deficits in your diet, and your own body’s ability to absorb magnesium effectively.
Finally, it is always important to make sure that you are getting a good deal on any supplement you are buying.
You need to think about both how many servings you are getting and how much magnesium is in each serving in order to calculate whether the price is worth it.
Remember, cheapest is not always best. Shopping for value is about finding the best quality for the price.
KEY POINT: You should not just buy the first magnesium supplement you see. You should do some research and choose a product which is going to satisfy you based on dosage, price, brand, intended use, and other important factors.
How to Take Magnesium Supplements
The exact instructions for taking your magnesium supplements will depend on the product you buy. But here are some general instructions for taking supplements in each of the formats discussed above.
Taking a magnesium tablet is pretty self-explanatory, but here are some tips:
- Take the recommended dosage for your condition. If that means cutting a tablet in half, do so.
- Be aware that certain types of magnesium (such as magnesium citrate) are more likely to cause diarrhea and stomach upset if you take them on an empty stomach. So taking them when you eat is wise.
- High doses of zinc have been found to interfere with the body’s ability to effectively absorb magnesium (48). So you should be mindful of what you are eating if you decide to take magnesium with a meal. You do not want to disrupt absorption.
- Some people report that taking magnesium without a meal seems to work better for them - but this seems more common when using the powder for insomnia.
To take a powdered form of magnesium, follow these steps:
- Measure out the appropriate dosage (check the instructions on the bottle).
- Stir the powder into hot water (check again to find out how much to use).
- Keep stirring until the powder is fully dissolved.
- Add in as much warm or cool water as you want, and then drink up.
Some powdered forms dissolve adequately without the need for step #2, so you may be able to skip it.
You may also be able to take the supplement in juice or a smoothie instead of just water.
Taking milk of magnesia as an example, here are the steps to take a liquid magnesium supplement:
- Shake the bottle.
- Pour the appropriate dosage into a measuring spoon. You should never use a regular spoon for this, as you will be guessing, and may get the dosage wrong.
- Swallow the supplement.
- If you are taking milk of magnesia for constipation, you should follow it up with an 8 ounce glass of water.
It is recommended that you be cautious taking strong laxative forms of magnesium. If you take them too often, you risk your body becoming dependent on them.
This can actually reinforce your constipation, turning it into a more chronic problem. You also risk dehydration and imbalances in your body’s mineral content.
So only use magnesium laxatives when you really need them.
To take Epsom salts orally:
- Add one dose to an 8-ounce glass of water. It is important to use a large amount of water because if you do not, you could become dehydrated.
- Stir the salts into the water until they are fully dissolved.
- Drink the entire glass of water.
If you do not like the flavor of the Epsom salts, you can try to mask it. Lemon juice can be useful for this purpose.
In terms of timing, it is useful to know that most people get a bowel movement after taking Epsom salts in anywhere from half an hour to six hours.
I recommend you do not take magnesium salts orally unless you are in a pinch. It should not be a regular part of your health regimen.
Why not? It is hard to measure out the salts with any precision. As such, the dosages you are taking are varying, even if you are trying to be careful.
That means that you could take too much magnesium sulfate by mistake, and find yourself dealing with an overdose.
To take an Epsom salt bath:
- Measure out 1-2 cups of Epsom salts.
- Pour the salts into your bathtub under your faucet (after blocking off the drain).
- Get the water running. Make sure it is fairly hot. This combined with the motion of the water is what will stir up and dissolve the salts.
- Once the salts are fully dissolved and the tub is full, you can step inside. It is suggested to soak for 12 minutes at the minimum. You can soak for as long as you want.
KEY POINT: You now have the basic instructions for taking different forms of magnesium supplements.
Always check the bottle for your exact product so that you are getting the right dosage and are aware of any additional instructions or variations before proceeding.
Top Recommended Magnesium Supplements
Now that you know all about shopping for magnesium supplements, let’s take a look at 5 of the top recommended products.
If bioavailability is your main concern when picking out a magnesium supplement, this product is well worth considering.
Doctor’s Best is a popular, reputable brand, and these magnesium supplements are 100% chelated for easy and efficient absorption.
- 200 mg of chelated magnesium in each serving
- Serving size is 2 tablets
- Each bottle contains 120 servings
- Other ingredients include: Microcrystalline cellulose, magnesium stearate, croscarmellose sodium, stearic acid, and modified cellulose.
What Doctor’s Best Magnesium Glycinate Lysinate Is Best For
This is an excellent product if you want to save money on a powerful, bioavailable form of magnesium which will not disturb your digestion.
If you would like to purchase magnesium in the form of magnesium citrate, one popular product from a well-known brand is this one from NOW.
- Each serving contains 400 mg of magnesium
- Serving size is 2 tablets
- There are 125 servings in each container
- Other ingredients include: Cellulose, stearic acid (vegetable source), croscarmellose sodium, magnesium stearate (vegetable source) and vegetable coating.
- GMP Certified
What NOW Magnesium Citrate Is Best For
This product is worth considering if you are shopping for magnesium specifically as a treatment for constipation. If you are not, the Doctor’s Best supplement above would probably be a better purchase.
Don’t want to swallow large magnesium pills? Prefer a powder which you can stir into a drink?
One incredibly popular product which you can try is this anti-stress magnesium powder from the Natural Vitality brand.
As an aside, I have not tried this product personally, but it has been highly recommended to me by several people.
- This link is to the popular raspberry lemon flavor, but you can also order the same product in lemon or cherry
- 4 oz. (also available in 8 oz. or 16 oz.)
- Serving size is 2 teaspoons
- Each container has around 28 servings
- Each serving contains 325 mg of ionic magnesium citrate made from a special proprietary blend of magnesium carbonate and citric acid
- Other ingredients include: Organic lemon flavors, organic raspberry flavors, organic stevia
- All natural and organic
- Non-GMO Project Verified
What Natural Vitality Natural Calm Magnesium Is Best For
I recommend this product especially for improving your sleep and mood. Because of the higher price, I would not necessarily suggest using it on a daily basis (unless that is not an issue with your budget).
Instead, I would probably take a less expensive tablet or capsule each day, but switch to Calm on days when you are particularly anxious or need help getting to sleep.
An alternative to the Calm product is BulkSupplements Pure Magnesium Carbonate.
This might be a good option if you want to get away from flavorings.
- 100 g (3.53 oz.)
- Serving size is 1540 milligrams
- There are 66 servings per container
- Contains no soy, dairy, sugar, yeast, gluten or other additives
What BulkSupplements Pure Magnesium Carbonate Is Best For
If you do not appreciate the taste of Calm, this product is probably your next best option.
As with Calm, I would probably suggest that you use it when you need an extra boost, and rely on less expensive tablets or capsules for everyday use.
One of the most popular and highly rated liquid magnesium products you will find is this one from Trace Minerals.
Because it is in a liquid form, you can measure out the dosage you need, and apply it topically if you need to.
- Each serving contains 300 mg of magnesium (from citrate)
- The serving size is 1 tablespoon
- There are 32 servings in each container
- Contains no known allergens
- Other ingredients include: Purified water, natural tangerine flavor, xylitol, citric acid, stevia leaf, potassium sorbate, xanthan gum
What Trace Minerals Research Liquid Magnesium Is Best For
You should think about taking Trace Minerals Research Liquid Magnesium if you do not want to take magnesium in its powdered or capsule form, and are willing to pay a little extra.
Also consider it if you feel you could benefit from the presence of the trace minerals.
Conclusion: There Is a Lot of Variety in Magnesium Supplements, But With a Quality Product, You Can Enhance Your Health and Wellness
Shopping for high quality magnesium supplements does take some time, effort and research. But there are a lot of great products out there.
Once you add a magnesium supplement to your life, you will be supporting your health now and giving your body the nutrition it needs to keep functioning at its best.
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